The Baroness of Carini

Song: La Baronessa di Carini [The Baroness of Carini] 

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Humbly I dedicate this work of love to my Mother and to my brother Pippo, who were witness to me of a goodness without end and of a patience without limits.

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The Origins 

Icarus' Flight

The Baroness of Carini
   Pasiphae, Elio's daughter and wife of Minoss, King of Crete, fallen in love with a divine bull sent to her by Poseidonis, God of the sea, gave birth to the Minotaurus, the terrible, mythological monster, to whom had to be offered each year seven boys and seven girls.

   The King employed Daedalus of Athens, great architect of the times, to build a labyrinth in which to shut in the terrible monster. Arianna, Daedalus' daughter, fell in love with Teseus, one of the youths to be sacrificed, come from Athens and son of king Ionium. Wanting to save Teseus she asked Icarus for help. Icarus went to his father Dedalus who gave Arianna a ball of tread which Teseus used to get into the maze, kill the Minotaur and exit safely from the maze following the tread that he had undone on his way in. For this reason that tread became famous as "Arianna's tread".

   Minoss having uncovered Daedalus deception, had him shut in the labyrinth, built by him, along with Icarus his son. Icarus had in his knapsack the wings of an eagle which he had fought and won over the mountains of Greece. Daedalus, not knowing how to exit the labyrinth, to save his son and himself, built two pairs of wings to flee from there and find freedom. Icarus, however, did not want just freedom, he wanted fame, glory and immortality.

   When the fateful moment arrived, Icarus, before dawn, awoke his father to have him attach the wings on his back. Daedalus, while was attaching the wings to his son's shoulders, was advising him not to fly too low least the humidity of the sea would make his wings heavy and unmanageable, and not to fly too high because the heat of the sun would melt the wax on the wings and in either case he would fall to death :... it is to avail in the middle limit to fly...was the advice of the craftsman, and his voice was shaking.

   Icarus since the first leap aimed high, and, ignoring his father's advice, pointed toward the sky, flying higher and higher toward the Sun, toward Elios, Iperion's son, to challenge him within his kingdom. When he got under the solar carriage, with his wings' feathers now coming off steadily and fast, Icarus looked at the sun, whose face was brilliant with flames, and trying to overcome the roaring of the heavenly carriage with his voice, yelled:

"Elios, Hiperion's son
these man made wings Icarus offers you
he offers you these unknown wings of man
that knew how to reach up to you!"

And the poet makes the hero say:

My voice which was not asking for mercy
to the god but eternal praise, in the booming
of the wheels was dispersed, and fast rolling
through the eternal light, 

I rushed down into my deep sea. (1)

   Icarus fell in the Ionian sea, while Daedalus, with his pain broken heart, because the son had gone off toward sure death, landed in Sycany. Daedalus fit in immediately with the local populace and became famous readily, due to his great skills as inventor and builder. To him is adjudged the invention of the ax and the saw.


   Dedalus' fame reached Cocalus, king of Sycany (2), and he invited Dedalus to court and presented him with gifts and protection. Segaesta, a non greek city, was fomenting dissension as to encrease its territory. Cocalus, to put a stop to the insatiable thirst for territory of Segaesta, gave order and charged Daedalus to build a Castle-Fortress between Segaesta and Panormus (3).

   After a good territorial and coastal exploration, Daedalus, found the ideal spot for such a Castle and built it in that zone of Carini, (later called Garbolangeli) and called it Ikkar (4) in remembrance of the lost son. Because of its excellent geographical position, Ikkar quickly became populated and rapidly grew into a large city of commerce with a rich fishing industry. Daedalus, recognizing the military possibility of the new city, built a port at the foot of the town capable of accommodating a whole naval fleet. Meanwhile Segaesta, having suffered a big defeat at the hand of Selenuntes (5), fearing for its own territorial integrity, asked Athens for help.

   Athens broke by the lengthy and exhausting war against Sparta, finding itself in great financial distress, believed that the gods were giving them a sign in turning their attention toward the great Island where was rising proud and very rich Ikkar, which, according to the historian Tucidides, was "prosperous and populated". The Greek fleet, led by Nicias, doubled the strait of Messina, went to hide behind the "Isola delle Femmine", an island with the shape of a whale, East of Ikkar, while the army of Segaesta waited for the night West of the "Torre Muzza". At night Ikkar was assaulted from land and sea, and with the bewilderment of the inhabitants, that tried to defend themselves against an enemy well armed and... alert, the city was put to fire and sword and the people killed or taken prisoners. It was the year 405 circa B. C. Eight centuries had passed from its birth.


   The Iccareneans escaped the havoc, hid in the country side, living in tents and caves, striving to regroup and to grow in number. The events in Sicily follow rapidly: Syracuse, with the help of allied cities, inflicts such losses upon the Athenians that the later are forced to flee the Sicilian shores in a hurry. Segaesta, feeling now in danger, without friends, asks Carthage for help. Carthage is only happy to comply and lands, in that which later will be called Marsala, a great army led by Annibal. He with his army advances through inner Sicily destroying everything in his path. After Annibal's death, Himilcones takes command, and under his leadership the political situation appeased somewhat.

   The Carthageneans having finally settled their businesses and settled themselves in the occupied land, gave permission to the subject people to rebuild their demolished cities but without defensive walls. It seems that such permission was granted to the Iccareneans, who, because they had helped the Carthageneans to build some defensive walls, were in turn helped in rebuilding their city that now they called Iccari. For this reason Iccari was later listed among twelve cities submitted to Carthage, among which were Imera and Solanto. The new Iccari was built at the foot of Mountain Lunga, which was later called "Santo Nicola" (which means "Saint Nick"), and without military pretension, that was Carthage's will.

The Romans and other Conquerors

   From now on in Sicily is a succession of occupations and liberations: Pyrrho comes and Carthage again, and then the Romans and the Punic wars. The Vandals and the Goths, the Bizantines, the Ostrogoths... All this activity exhausted the "Island of the Sun", as Homer called it. She was drained of her resources and driven more and more to misery.

   During all this bustling period we do not have much on our town, only, here and there. a little news through the various wars. Later we know that, around 260 B.C., with the conquest of Sicily by the Romans, Ikkar, which never surrendered well to bondage, was forced to pay a stipend (such was called a tax that a conquered city had to pay to the conqueror) to the Romans, because, instead of welcoming the enemy with open arms, had to be conquered by force. In 138 a.D., it seems that the emperor Anthony Pius, during his visit to Sicily, and precisely in his itinerary from Palermo to Trapani, spent the night in Iccari. This makes us think that Iccari was enjoying of some importance.

The Moslems

   With the decline of the Roman Empire, the Arabs, those called "Saracens" (6), started to raid Sicily more frequently, to the point of occupying it completely in 820 a.D. and adding it to their empire. The Saracens ruled Sicily for two and on half centuries. The Moors, having extinguished every trace of resistance, settled on the great Island. After getting used to the Sicilians and having gone in business with them, they did not feel they had to pay the exorbitant taxes to their government. Grudges started to sprout, between the Saracens now from Sicily and the central government of Africa, to the breaking point.

   For the intolerance of the first toward the later, the Great Emir Abdul Ishak Ibrahim, sent a great army to Sicily led by his son, to punish the rebels. Not satisfied, after one year he recalled his son and he himself came to lead his army. Landing at Marsala in 901 and moving toward Palermo, Ibrahim brought massacre and destruction to every corner of Sicily. He proceeded with his army through the mountains and in his crossing came down over the second Iccari from South-West, from that point where the Mountain Lunga makes an open corner with that mountain that later was called Saracen, as the invader, and swept it like a grain of sand. Thirteen centuries had passed since its rebirth. 


   The survived inhabitants of Iccari now are forced to live the best they can, homeless and without the benefit of a roof: such was the law of the Moslems for the conquered. The savageness of Ibrahim froze everything in time in Sicily, and his death, which occurred in Palermo the same year of his invasion, awakened separatist movements and reanimated such harsh power struggles that shook the Moslem Empire at its foundation.

   From the power struggle among the Moslem factions, rose up the Emir Abu Mohammed Heidallah from the lineage of the Fatemites (from Fatima, Mohammed's daughter), who was said to be good and generous man, and it seems that under this ruler permission was granted to the wandering Iccareneans to rebuild their city, giving them the benefit that those who will rebuild their own home would be exempt from property tax.

   This we understand from a letter from the Emir of Sicily to a subordinate of the province of Palermo: Muhammed ben Aabol Allah, your Lord Aedelkum el Chbir kisses your forehead, greets you abundantly and says: My Great Person commands to let the people rebuild the demolished cities..., My Greatness of Aedelkum el Chbir says to you, o Muhammed ben Aabol Allah, that the chosen men must take with them wives and children, because in short time the demolished buildings will be rebuilt and will be used as dwelling for them; to each who rebuilds a home, to him it will be given free from any tax, because my Greatness so orders: in this way everybody will want to build well and beautify his home...

   This time the Icareneans had in mind to build their city in a high place and so they chose the hill above the second Iccari. The location was beautiful, the land fertile, the water abundant and sweet, the air healthy and the view of the sea and the mountains left you breathless with their sumptuous beauty. This hill, crouched at the foot of Mount Saracen, rises about six hundred feet above sea level, over the great plain underneath, sullen looking a most wide patch of sea that from that distance and height looks like an impossible wall of water. It's a curious hill, that gives a sense of security; it is seated at the center of a mountainous chain that surrounds it, as to protect it, from East, South and West like a great C, while it is open to the north on the sea.

   The first houses were born, near to each other, touching, almost one on top the other, as to say of a need for unity among those people whose assemblage was forbidden. The first streets started to take form, little, narrow, in the Saracen's custom, while the latter started to worry about these people with an indomitable will. The little town was growing fast taking new form and strength rapidly, day by day. The Saracens were clever, and to avoid finding themselves at a disadvantage, they built a defensive Bastion: to keep an eye over those countrymen. The town's name was later Carini. Carini was getting bigger even because many Moslems had taken definitive residence there.

   In a letter from the Governor of Carini, answering to a census ordered by the Emir of Sicily in "Balirnum" (Palerm), we read:- Abu Alfatuh Iusef ben Aabd Allah,Abraim Scirif, with his face to the ground kisses the hands of your Greatness and I say that in this letter you will find the number of persons, that live in the city of Ikkar, that I counted and they are: 1673 men, 2000 women, 301 boys, 286 girls, all Moslems, that live in the city of Ikkar. Among the Christians I found 2165 men, 1942 women, 249 boys and 300 girls among Christians, and this is the number of people that live in Ikkar. The letter ends with the date: City of Ikkar, 2 of the month of Reginab (January), 385 of Mohammed (1007 a.D.).

The Normans

   With the weakening of the Moslem power, Sicily is again open to other countries' ambitions. The Normans, called to free Southern Italy and then Sicily from the Moslems, think of making their own kingdom.. This people had come down from the North in search of territory. After many years of brigandage, to civilize them, the king of France gave them the northern territory, called "Normandy". They, in turn, due, maybe, to the Carolingean influence, became christians.Later this land was divided among the chiefs that most had brought to the community. One of these was Tancred of Hautville, whose territory was elevated to the rang of County.  At this time in our story,  Tancred D'Hauteville, had five children: William, Robert, Dragon, Unfred and Roger.

   The sons were thinking that that territory was enough for one Count, but when the time will come for them to divide it amongst all of them, it would be very little indeed, beside the inheritance law was such that only the first born wiould inherit the estate. So they decided to be soldiers of fortune. Having been in Italy before, they went there and fought to get rid of the Saracens in Southern Italy, first, and then from Sicily. Having helped the Byzantines to drive out the Saracens first, and then having expelled the same Byzantines, they took possession of the region of Puglia and made Count William, called "Iron Arm".

   With William's death, Robert was in line to be Count, and to him succeeded Roger. Roger fought the Saracens nested in different part of Sicily for long time. One of the major battles fought by Roger was to take possession of Cinisi and Jato (San Giuseppe Jato), where about thirteen thousand Moslem families were barricaded. To search for and drive out the Saracens from their strongholds, Roger always used the mountain's route that from Monreale leads to Partinico, and he used to stop just above the town of Carini with his troops, to rest and refresh since there were springs of good water and also because from that point he could keep an eye on the territory below without running the risk of an ambush.

   Finally having conquered all of Sicily, Roger took care of the State's internal affairs. He divided the land and gave it to his most courageous men and those who had special merit. It is interesting to note in what order the Normans classified the Sicilians: Villains, Peasants, Midleclassmen, Militiamen, Barons and Counts. Amongst these classes there was a relationship: One Peasant was worth two Villains, a Middleclassman was worth two Peasants, one Militiaman two Midleclassmen, one Baron two Militiamen, one Count two Barons. As it is historically known the Villains and the Peasants were always those who were getting the short end of the stick.

The Castle of Carini

   The Normans were succeeded by the Swebes, and these by the Anjoins and these at last by the Aragonesis. All these people, all the Princes that came through Carini, brought addition, reinforcement and modification to the original defense Bastion built by the Moors. Every Prince chose the Bastion as a personal dwelling, because it was built to withstand any assault. It is not known when, but in all that bustle of people, the name of Castle of Carini was given to the Bastion now surrounded by a large complex of buildings. It was during this lapse of time that the town took the name of Carini, which, as one can see, is a derivative of the name that Daedalus had given it many centuries ago.


Castle of Carini

The Castle


   The complete construction of the Castle was accomplished by Manfredi Di Chiaromonte, while the last refinishing and actual appearance was given to the Castle in the 14th century. The Castle still stands today, but much it has suffered for lack of maintenance and restoration. Even now, after so many centuries, the Castle looks awesome and majestic to all those who come to Carini for the first time.

   Superbly clambered up over the highest rock of the hill, stately and unconquered, from the North side , while looking down on a strong and imaginary enemy already defeated, it is outlined against the blue sky during the day, as if it were at the outer limits of the universe, while its silhouette against the dark night sky makes one shiver with fear as if it were a Shaksperean Castle.

The Lineage Talamanca-La Grua

   Martin I D'Aragon, with a royal decree gave the Castle and surrounding land to Umbertino La Grua, elevating at the same time the feud to Baronage. Later for lack of sons from Umbertino, the son-in-law Talamanca took over the Baronage, with his father-in-law's clause that he would incorporate the name of  La Grua, which was the daughter's name, and so initiating the Talamanca-La Grua lineage. In 1536 we find Vince Talamanca-La Grua Baron of Carini and owner of the Castle, who in 1543 married Donna Laura Lanza Di Trabia.

   It was here, in this Castle, that one clear morning of December 1563, as a contrast to the beauty of that day, the limpidity of the sky, the green of the hills and the mountains, the Baroness of Carini fell victim to the parricidal fury of her father, to the blind fury of a father cruel and inhumane, according to the story that the unknown poet tells us throughout his poem.

The Poem

   This deed of blood would have remained in the darkness of time, as many others, if a poet, still unknown to us, wouldn't have romanticized that tragedy of the Talamanca-La Grua family, giving us, at the same time, one of the most beautiful poems of the Sicilian literature. A poem full of humanity, compassion, true sorrow, and poetic beauty, making us forget that we really do not know the real story of that tragedy that hit the Talamanca-La Grua family in that distant year of 1563, and assists us in participating in the pain of that great loss. One thing is certain, even if now we are in the most mature stage of the Humanism, no rights exist in the human and civil rights of man.

   The feudal system is in full gear and the people are subject to endure all types of injustice and barbarism. These do not stop only on the subjects at large, but impose themselves on every social rank, to the point that the dreams of young people were exchanged as merchandise: in fact weddings were arranged by families and politically, keeping in sight the social rank and power, together with the price (how much they owned) of the candidates, without keeping in mind, in any way, the spiritual welfare nor the feelings of those candidates.

   The news (of the death of the Baroness) shook all of Sicily: it caused astonishment, wonder, gossip and sorrow. It is in the intrinsic ties of pain with the Sicilian soul from whence rises the unknown voice that cries, threatens, condemns, and, at last, takes vengeance over the brutality, haughtiness, insensibility and hypocrisy of the feudal system. It is from the suppression of the individual liberty, from the feudalistic tyranny, from the bondage of the values held most dear to man that the voice rises up, which in the case of the "Baroness of Carini", in the ineffable pain of the loss of the beautiful Castellana, makes the Sicilian language flourish in all its splendor.

   It is from this cultural mood that the song of the poet is set free, and like the troubadour, sings his pain, his emotions, his joy, spontaneously, as his heart dictates them. It is with this spontaneity that the unknown poet tells us of this brutal crime that was perpetrated in the Castle of Carini (8). It is for this reason that we are incredibly fortunate not to have lost this beautiful example of Sicilian literature, which is not the start nor the end of the beautiful Sicilian poetry, but it is, at the same time, a forerunner of a poetic production so prolific and high, to keep pace with other world's literature.

   Maybe for fear of retaliation from the powerful Family of Carini or for other reason, the poem was never written by the anonymous poet but it was recited or even sung (9), and so conveyed from one generation to another for more then three centuries. Finally the poem was collected by Salvatore Salomone-Marino, a folkloristic poet, who heard it from the real voice of Giuseppe Gargagliano, a story singer of that time in Carini. Salomone-Marino cleansed the poem of its acquired roughness, documented it the best he could and in 1870 he published it.

   He kept searching for other variants of the poem and more historic documents, and in 1873 he published a second edition revised and corrected. The poem raised great interest and curiosity among the learned men of the time, as, to mention a few, Luigi Galante, who gave us a beautiful edition of "The Case Of The Baroness Of Carini", Giuseppe Pitre', Antonino Pagliaro, Federico De Maria, who gave us another edition of the poem.

   The edition best known, best accepted and most popular, is the one that Salvatore Salomone-Marino gave us in 1873. This gallop through these last three thousand years, is a mixture of legend and history, more history than legend, but above all wants to be a very small ray of light on the origin of Carini, and, why not?, even on the origin of the Castle. History and legend: to the reader the job, not too difficult, to distinguish the two.


   This edition of "The Baroness of Carini" does not want to be another attempt to reconstruct the misfortune that hit the La Grua and the Lanza families in the middle of the sixteenth century, rather it is an attempt, maybe vain, to divulge among the new generations (and to exhort my generation not to forget) the beautiful Sicilian language, which, in many cases, has reached the beauty of the Italian language. Today, commonly, the use of the Sicilian language is considered uncouth and in bad taste, and it is very easily substituted, almost irresponsibly, with the Italian language.

   Once accepted the superiority of the Italian language, the rejection of the Sicilian language has become automatic of an evolutionary process, which, with the regional illiteracy as base, wants to achieve, at the expenses of a literary form, the education of an entire people and the perfection of a language which, even if it gives us the possibility of communication and easiness of expression, it is not ours, and makes us forget, by making it incomprehensible, our history, our literature, our origins.

   The Sicilian language has a rich history, a prolific literature: why then we don't give it a place in the schools of Sicily, where it could be an instrument of knowledge of our origins and a way to understand our inner selves, which, brought up and developed in a millenary tradition, gives little yield to this way of life, even if it seems to be entirely fascinated by it? The inner conflict that exists in everyone of us which is always searching for the equilibrium between a new world fast and volatile, and the old "I" that appears at the far edge of our souls, will never be solved, nor the balance achieved, if we forget the language of our fathers.

   That language which gave us "La Barunissa di Carini", the poem that, as Federico De Maria says, "... in measure, without doubt, very much less ample but not less intense, reminds... the classic works and Dante and is a forerunner of the expressive power of William Shakespeare". Let us not forget that masters of this language are Giovanni Meli, who with his works has given a definitive place in the literature to the Sicilian language, Domenico Tempio, whose works are subjects of studies at the University of Palermo, and Nino Martoglio who with his theater made the Sicilian language shine and with it entertained countless Italian spectators.

   Giuseppe Pirandello and Giovanni Verga are great in the Italian language, but from every pore of their works transpire the Sicilian traditions and origins. As we can see the knowledge of the Sicilian language is not just an educational means for us, but it is absolutely necessary for a better understanding of ourselves and of our history. The moment in history is of essence: if we do not put a stop to this modifying of the Sicilian language into the Italian one, we will find ourselves in front of a complete disappearance of our mother tongue... Yes, Mother! Sicilian were the very first words with which we learned to speak. Sicilian were the very first reassuring words that we heard most often ('Un ti scantari! Don't be afraid!). Many words are already unknown to today's youth and they have started to lose the accent of the language. The warning is out. With the disappearance of the last generations of the XX century, the last traces of our beautiful language will be lost.

   The worst thing is not that we find ourselves in the midst of a strong language evolution that started at the beginning of fascism and became stronger in the mid of the Second World War, but above all that we are confronted by an incomprehensible and voluntary substitution of language. If the Italian language will be the complete subjugation of the Sicilian language it will be only because by using the Italian language as a means of education and of communication, we make it an obliteration means of our past.

The Baroness of Carini

The History and the Legend

   Caterina Talamanca-La Grua, daughter of Pietro Vincenzo II, Baron of Carini, and Donna Laura Lanza from the Baronage of Trabia, according to the legend, became the lover of her cousin Vincenzo Vernagallo, Lord of Dainu Asturi, and son of Elisabetta La Grua. As soon as the father knows of the illicit relationship of his daughter with her cousin, leaves Palermo to cleanse the shame with which Caterina has stained the family honor. Caterina looking out the balcony, from where one could see the mountains of Palermo, sees her father coming and knows in her heart the reason why. She tries to hide herself in the inner rooms of the Castle but her father reaches her and kills her with inhumane ferocity.


Carini Cathedral

Carini Cathedral


   Vincenzo Vernagallo fleas to Palermo, hiding in the zone of Lattarini, and from there to Spain where, in Madrid, he becomes a Carmelitan monk. The version most accepted by the historians, who have analyzed the poem and the history of the time, is deducted from the archives of the Cathedral of Carini. Here in the Register of the Acts of Death one can read:"...on the 4 of December... 1563 was dead the Resp.le Donna Laura La Grua. She was entombed in the Mother Church..." ..."In the same day was dead Ludovico Vernagallo..." (Substituted by the poet and/or the relatives with Vincenzo).

   Then the victim of the terrible tragedy of Carini must have been the daughter Laura (Caterina never even existed!), guilty of a crime (adultery) that can only be cleansed by death. The poet changes the players for fear and/or respect toward three powerful families, whose reputation would have been dragged through the mud of gossip of every social class.

   In conclusion, Donna Laura Lanza-La Grua was killed by her father and her husband, Baron Vincenzo Talamanca-La Grua, and not Caterina who would have been the Granddaughter (not the daughter) of Don Cesare Lanza di Trabia, together with Ludovico Vernagallo, and not Vincenzo (his brother), who really became a Carmelitan monk in Spain and died in 1588. In these later years some new information has come to light, which, if for one they confirm the story of the poet, who makes the father responsible for the crime, they change the arm in the hands of the killer. It was always known... well, we always thought... actually we always ASSUMED that the killer's arm was the sword. Now, suddenly, we find out something altogether different and surprising.


The Baroness's bedroom door.

   In the #18, Year II, of the Daily News Of Sicily, printed for the Italians of the United States, Mr. Giuseppe Quatriglio, reporter for said newspaper, while researching the Battle of Lepanto, fought by the Christians against the Turk Ottomans and the consequences of that war, came across a document, prepared by the House of Representatives of Italy, for King Philip II of Spain, about the Spanish domains in Italy. That document is the confession of the Baron Don Cesare Lanza. ( who now is a Count instead). With that confession, by means of some influential party, the Baron gets his case thrown in the archives and avoid the murder prosecution.

This is the document filed by Don Cesare Lanza to the king of Spain, to justify the killing of his daughter Laura:

Sacred Catholic Royal Majesty,

   Don Cesare Lanza, count of Mussomeli, will explain to your Majesty, how, having gone to the Castle of Carini, to see his daughter, as he was used to do, from time to time, found the Baron of Carini, his son-in-law very upset, because he had discovered at the same time in his room Ludovico Vernagallo, her lover, with the said Baronessa. At this point myself and the Baron, moved by just indignation, went and found said Baroness and her lover in said room, locked inside, and so right there and then they both were killed with an Arcabuz (shot gun).

Signed: Don Cesare Lanza Count of Mussomeli


(1) Dithyramb IV from the Third Book of the "Laudi" of Gabriele D'Annunzio.
(2) In 1500 a. C. circa, part of Sicily was occupied by a people from Ligury (Italy) led by Sycanus. This people called the new land Sicany in honor of their leader. Later an army led by Siculus, son of Italus (hence the name Italy) occupied another part of Sicily, and again the soldiers called the new land Sicily in honor of their leader. In time the Siculi placed themselves best militarily, economically and geographically, and imposed the name "Sicily" to the whole Island.
(3) Palermo, or Panormus, was founded by the Phoenicians.
(4) It seems that in that time the most important cities had the power to mint their own money. Where the first Ikar used to be, some coins have been found with the word "IKAP" (Icar) printed on them.
(5) Ikar and Selenuntes were allies and always helped each other.
(6) The "Saracens" proclaimed to be descendants of Ismael, son of Agar, Abraham's concubine. Later, so not to feel humiliated by their origins, they claimed themselves as descendants of Sarak, Abraham's wife, and, for that reason they called themselves "Saracens", there is, descendants of Sarak.
(8) The room of the crime was sealed with a wall, and over the wall was encased a stone which said:? ET NOVA SINT OMNIA? (Let everything be new) as to say:?Let's start all over again! In fact the Baron wedded Donna Ninfa Ruiz, a Spanish aristocrat, less then a year later. About a century later the Baronage of Carini was elevated to Principality.
(9) I remember when I was a boy, my mother, working at the house chores, was singing of the "Barunissa di Carini". I still hear her voice in low key;"... At the first blow the lady stayed,? at the second hit she fell and died..." Later when I understood what she was singing about, I asked her where she had learned the old poem; she answered that she had learned it from her mother, my grandmother, who, in turn, had learned it from her mother, who was singing it while working around the house, having herself learned it in the same way.